Phytochemical Properties, Pharmacological Activities and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Nicotiana tabacum L.-A Comprehensive Review.

Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) is a popular plant in human history and economy and it is a notable fumitory plant. Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, snuff, and loose pipe tobacco. All forms of tobacco contain the pyridine alkaloid, nicotine which is an extremely addictive drug that can act as both central nervous system stimulant and depressant. In addition to the alkaloid nicotine, tobacco contain other major phytochemicals such as flavonoid, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, steroids, polypeptides, resins etc. These bioactive substances have a number of biological activities including antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-Alzheimer’s, peripheral nervous system activities, central nervous system and cardiovascular system activities. Various parts of Nicotiana tabacum such as roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of various human ailments such as skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, ulcers, piles, worms, dysmenorrhea, constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, hydrocele, arthralgia, gout, lumbago etc. Therefore, the aim of this article is to comprehensively review the phytochemical properties, pharmacological activities and the ethnomedicinal uses of Nicotiana tabacum L.(tobacco) reported worldwide prior to end of 2020 . Keywords: Photochemistry, Pharmacology, Ethnomedicine, Nicotine, Tobacco

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