Synergistic Effect of oils extracted from Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf and Prunus dulcis in Formulated Herbal Soap

Natural remedy have been in use by homeopathic and herbalists in handling skin problems, in this present study, synergistic effects of essential oils extracted from local plants Bryophyllum pinnatum (odaa opue) leaves and Prunus dulcis (almond) seeds in formulated herbal soap was investigated. These bio materials were dried at temperature of 80 0C for three days and extracted using solvent extraction method with acetone via soxhlet extractor. Oil yields were 22.58/287g and 16.88/281 g for B. pinnatum and P. dulcis, respectively. The oils (B. pinnatum and P. dulcis) were used in single and combined doses in the ratios of 2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2, 0:0 (blank),0:5, 5:0 and 5:5, respectively to formulate the soaps of varying concentrations. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were positive controls whereas pseudomonas aureginosa, staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and candida albicans were clinical isolates of microbes used. Sensitivity test was conducted and an in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity was conducted using ditch-plate techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aureginosa and Escherichia coli were tested at four different soaps’ concentrations ( 0.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). ANOVA mean results of zones of inhibition also revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the natural formulated soaps with positive correlation (P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Synergistic effects of (P. dulcis: B. piñata) ratios 2:8 soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (36 mm) on S. aureus, followed by Candida albicans with (30 mm) zone of inhibition whereas single formulations gave the least zone of inhibition (9mm and 13mm ) respectively for P. dulcis and B.pinatum ,respectively. Therefore with local plant materials in synergy, an effective, cheap and environmentally friendly herbal soap was explored hence, we recommend the product to homes, pharmaceutical companies, health organizations and government in handling topical issues related to skin infections caused by micro organisms. Keyworks: Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf; Prunus dulcis; herbal soap

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